Doc’s Top Tips To Prevent Summertime Injuries

little cute girl near the pool with a circle for swimmingSafety is not simple.

There is no clear division between “this activity will be safe,” and “this activity will injure my child.” We could wrap our children up, keep them indoors, and not allow them to play with anything remotely dangerous—but then we would have a child who is lonely, overweight and really bored…who would get into trouble and injure themselves… Or not get in trouble and develop diabetes, heart disease and knee problems from obesity.

Kids need to be active, and summertime brings many interesting opportunities for exercise, adventure and injury.

Wouldn’t it be great if some doctor type person would tell you what activities were the most likely to bring ER bills into your life?

Oh, wait… That’s me! So:

The most common causes of accidental death are gunshots, motorized vehicle and bike accidents, drowning, poisoning, and fire.

Drowning, MVAs, bike accidents, and trampoline accidents are all more common in the summer, when kids are out of school.

Water Safety

Drowning is every pediatrician’s worst nightmare. It is currently the fifth leading cause of accidental death. An average of 700 children drown each year: about 2 each day. Most are under 4; 80% are male. For every death, there are 5 more children who drowned but survived, commonly with irreversible damage to their brains.

Infants and toddlers drown in bath tubs, buckets, toilets–it only requires about an inch of water, just enough to cover their nose and mouth. Older children drown in pools, rivers, lakes, and oceans.

Never leave any child alone for even a moment near open water, whether it is an ocean, a bathtub, or a water bucket. All it takes is one moment of inattention for a child to slip away. If there is open water, you need to be within touching distance and focused on your child. The story I have heard over and over is, “We were right there, just talking, but nobody noticed anything until we realized he was gone.” Keep your kids in sight, and don’t let yourself get distracted.

Be especially careful at the end of the day, as the water empties and people are gathering up their belongings and leaving. Children will want to swim just a minute more, or will attempt to go back for that last toy floating in the water.

Pools should be fenced in and closed off with a self-latching gate at the end of the day, and all the toys should be put away. Life vests are fabulous for a parent’s mental health and relaxation (swimmies and floaties are not life jackets). Life preservers and a shepherd’s crook should be placed obviously nearby wherever kids are swimming.

Sign your kids up for swimming lessons, even if you are afraid. A middle schooler or teen will never admit to their friends that they don’t know how to swim. They will fake it, sometimes unsuccessfully. Don’t, however, trust a young child to remember his or her swimming lessons when they need them. If they are startled or scared, they will forget everything they learned and just sink to the bottom.

Know what to look for. In real life, drowning does not look like it does in the movies. It is possible to miss someone drowning right in front of you if you do not know what you are seeing. They do not shout for help and wave their arms. They tire, and panic. A drowning child might never make a sound, but quietly slip under the water. An older child might keep themselves above the water for a while, but their head might be low in the water, with their mouth at water level, or perhaps with their head tilted back. Their eyes might be blank or closed. They will sometimes hang vertically in the water without paddling their legs, or appear to paddle with no purposeful movement. A drowning person is very easy to miss if you are not vigilant; and very easy to help if you are.

Somebody should know CPR—why not you? Your local fire department or hospital will have classes.

Swimming is a necessary skill, fun, and excellent exercise; it is also a time for close observation and care.

Motorized Vehicles

The other motorized vehicles—ATVs, dirt bikes, snowmobiles, and Sea-Doos—are also commonly out in the summer. They are the perfect storm: they go fast, have no outside framework, roll over easily, and the only things that keep them from crashing are your children’s foresight, common sense, and trained reflexes. Hmm. The United States averaged 23,800 dirt bike crashes requiring emergency room visits every year between 2001 and 2004; these numbers go up as dirt bikes become more popular. Don’t. Really, just don’t.

You do like the kid, right?

Bikes

Bikes come out of the garage when the weather warms up and the roads are not covered in ice. And yes, the dorky bike helmet is an excellent idea.

Thousands of children are injured or killed every year due to bike accidents, frequently right near their homes. In 2010 alone, there were 800 deaths, 26,000 traumatic brain injuries and 515,000 emergency room visits after bike accidents.

Asphalt is not soft, even right next to your house. When a car hits a child, the child flies through the air. The heaviest part of the child—the head—lands first.

Make them wear the dorky helmet, on top of the head please, covering the top of the forehead, and tied snugly under the chin, not dangling on the back of the head. Hang it on the bike handlebars when not in use so that it is the first thing on and the last thing off. Keep a big lock handy so that if you catch them on the bike without the helmet, you can lock it up and they can walk for a week. Sorry kid, that was the rule and you knew it. There is no need for any argument.

Please don’t buy a bike two sizes too big. Your child will fall off. Children should be able to place the balls of their feet on the ground while their rump is on the seat, and their whole foot should be flat when they are standing over the crossbar. An extra bike or two over the years is cheaper than a broken child.

Trampolines

Trampolines are a huge source of income for surgeons and orthopedists. If you would like to make them poor, don’t buy a trampoline. If you have one, please be careful. Most trampoline accidents occur when there is more than one person on the trampoline, especially when they are not the same size. The smaller one goes flying or is fallen upon. Safety nets and pads are better than no safety nets and pads.

On second thought, forget I said all that. Let’s go back to no trampolines. Kids break bones, damage their kidneys, and hurt their heads and spines.

Children will at some point injure themselves because they need to be free to run, swim, and climb monkey bars and trees. Try not to obsess over scraped knees, a goose egg on the forehead, or a few stitches. Everybody gets those, and your children will find a way.

Concentrate on the risks that will kill them or seriously injure them: motor vehicle accidents, drowning, fires, poisonings, and gunshots. Don’t go out of your way to buy things that will hurt them, such as trampolines and ATVs.

Make it so they have to get creative if they want to injure themselves. Creativity is good, right?

 

 

 

 

How to Stay Safe on a Bicycle

Learning to ride a bike is one of the great rites of passage in childhood. A child with a bike does not have to depend only on his own two feet: he has the freedom and power of transportation.

With power comes risk. Your job as a parent is to minimize this risk, so I have assembled a few important points on bike safety.

First, keep a small child off the street, and accompany him as he rides. When you feel he is old enough and mature enough to share the road with cars, establish some basic safety rules.

When biking, they should ride with traffic, on the right side of the road. They need to stop before entering a street and at all intersections, and check all directions before proceeding. They need to ride only in daylight, not at dusk or after dark.

And yes, the dorky bike helmet is an excellent idea. Thousands of children are injured or killed every year as a result of bike accidents, frequently right near their homes. In 2010 alone, there were 800 deaths, 26,000 traumatic brain injuries and 515,000 emergency room visits after bike accidents. Asphalt is not soft, even right next to your house. The worst accidents are, of course, when a car hits a child. When this happens, the child flies through the air. The heaviest part of the child—the head—lands first. Make them wear the dorky helmet, on top of the head please, covering the top of the forehead, and tied snugly under the chin, not dangling on the back of the head. Make it a rule that they wear the helmet each and every time their feet hit those peddles. Hang it on the bike handlebars when not it is not in use so that it is the first thing on and the last thing off. Keep a big lock handy so that if you catch them on the bike without the helmet, you can walk over and lock up the bike. They can walk for a week. There is no need for any argument because they already knew that that was the rule.

Last, please don’t buy a bike two sizes too big. Your child will fall off. Children should be able to place the balls of their feet on the ground while their rump is on the seat, and the whole foot flat on the ground when they are standing over the crossbar. An extra bike or two over the years is cheaper than a broken child.

Then, within the confines of the rules, adventure awaits!

How to Stay Safe in a Motor Vehicle

Motorized vehicle accidents are, most years, the first or second leading cause of accidental death in kids: children are improperly restrained in cars or are passengers with an impaired driver, are inexperienced teenage drivers, or are operating ATVs, dirt bikes, and Sea Doo’s…. I have nightmares.

Children are frequently in accidents when someone else is in the driver’s seat. The number one thing you can do to prevent injury to your child in an accident is to get an approved car seat of the appropriate size for your munchkin, and always latch him or her in—no matter how far you are going. No exceptions, ever. I once watched a baby die after being flung from his mother’s arms in a car going only five miles per hour in the parking lot of our children’s hospital. If the car is moving, the child needs to be locked in.  Make sure the seat fits your child, and change the seat as he or she grows. Read the manual for the car seat and for your car. If you are unsure that everything fits and is hooked up correctly, call your local fire station. Most are happy to check your child’s seat for free.

Drive rationally yourself. Leave a decent following distance.  Follow the 3 second rule (it should take you 3 seconds to reach the car in front of you if it stopped instantly), no matter what the speed. Stay off your cell phone, because studies prove distracted driving from cell phone use is as bad or worse than drunk driving. Make wearing a seatbelt such an ingrained habit that it never occurs to them not to do it, and never drive if you have been drinking.

Talk to them about getting out of a car if they don’t feel safe with the driver. Agree to pick them up anywhere, anytime if they call you. I have one patient who is alive now because he said, “No, I’ll just walk.” The boy who took his place is dead.

There is nothing to match the terror of knowing your fragile child has a driver’s licence. Most states have implemented longer required periods of time driving with learner’s permits, which has decreased injuries significantly. Graduated licenses have also helped: the more time kids drive with supervision before they are on their own, the better. Automatic seat belts and airbags are beautiful things. Also, the longer they have to drive themselves before they can drive friends, the better. When the time comes, friends bring with them a multitude of distractions: conversation, music, tech, flirting, and peer pressure.  Texting and distracted driving are the problems of the day, waiting for a solution. Talk to your children about the dangers; make sure they understand that texting and driving is never allowed, and that they must keep their attention on the road. Be a good example by doing this yourself.

If your child wants their own car, make sure they contribute to its cost in both dollars and sweat. If a child puts their hard earned money and muscle into a car he or she will take better care of it, and consequently of the person inside.

Last, the other motorized vehicles: Sea-Doo’s, ATVs and dirt bikes. They are the perfect storm: they go fast, have no outside framework, roll over easily, and the only thing that keeps them from crashing are your children’s foresight, common sense, and trained reflexes. The United States averaged 23,800 dirt bike crashes requiring emergency room visits every year between 2001 and 2004; these numbers go up as dirt bikes become more popular. Don’t. Really, just don’t. You do like the kid, right?