How to Stay Safe on a Bicycle

Learning to ride a bike is one of the great rites of passage in childhood. A child with a bike does not have to depend only on his own two feet: he has the freedom and power of transportation.

With power comes risk. Your job as a parent is to minimize this risk, so I have assembled a few important points on bike safety.

First, keep a small child off the street, and accompany him as he rides. When you feel he is old enough and mature enough to share the road with cars, establish some basic safety rules.

When biking, they should ride with traffic, on the right side of the road. They need to stop before entering a street and at all intersections, and check all directions before proceeding. They need to ride only in daylight, not at dusk or after dark.

And yes, the dorky bike helmet is an excellent idea. Thousands of children are injured or killed every year as a result of bike accidents, frequently right near their homes. In 2010 alone, there were 800 deaths, 26,000 traumatic brain injuries and 515,000 emergency room visits after bike accidents. Asphalt is not soft, even right next to your house. The worst accidents are, of course, when a car hits a child. When this happens, the child flies through the air. The heaviest part of the child—the head—lands first. Make them wear the dorky helmet, on top of the head please, covering the top of the forehead, and tied snugly under the chin, not dangling on the back of the head. Make it a rule that they wear the helmet each and every time their feet hit those peddles. Hang it on the bike handlebars when not it is not in use so that it is the first thing on and the last thing off. Keep a big lock handy so that if you catch them on the bike without the helmet, you can walk over and lock up the bike. They can walk for a week. There is no need for any argument because they already knew that that was the rule.

Last, please don’t buy a bike two sizes too big. Your child will fall off. Children should be able to place the balls of their feet on the ground while their rump is on the seat, and the whole foot flat on the ground when they are standing over the crossbar. An extra bike or two over the years is cheaper than a broken child.

Then, within the confines of the rules, adventure awaits!

How to Stay Safe in a Motor Vehicle

Motorized vehicle accidents are, most years, the first or second leading cause of accidental death in kids: children are improperly restrained in cars or are passengers with an impaired driver, are inexperienced teenage drivers, or are operating ATVs, dirt bikes, and Sea Doo’s…. I have nightmares.

Children are frequently in accidents when someone else is in the driver’s seat. The number one thing you can do to prevent injury to your child in an accident is to get an approved car seat of the appropriate size for your munchkin, and always latch him or her in—no matter how far you are going. No exceptions, ever. I once watched a baby die after being flung from his mother’s arms in a car going only five miles per hour in the parking lot of our children’s hospital. If the car is moving, the child needs to be locked in.  Make sure the seat fits your child, and change the seat as he or she grows. Read the manual for the car seat and for your car. If you are unsure that everything fits and is hooked up correctly, call your local fire station. Most are happy to check your child’s seat for free.

Drive rationally yourself. Leave a decent following distance.  Follow the 3 second rule (it should take you 3 seconds to reach the car in front of you if it stopped instantly), no matter what the speed. Stay off your cell phone, because studies prove distracted driving from cell phone use is as bad or worse than drunk driving. Make wearing a seatbelt such an ingrained habit that it never occurs to them not to do it, and never drive if you have been drinking.

Talk to them about getting out of a car if they don’t feel safe with the driver. Agree to pick them up anywhere, anytime if they call you. I have one patient who is alive now because he said, “No, I’ll just walk.” The boy who took his place is dead.

There is nothing to match the terror of knowing your fragile child has a driver’s licence. Most states have implemented longer required periods of time driving with learner’s permits, which has decreased injuries significantly. Graduated licenses have also helped: the more time kids drive with supervision before they are on their own, the better. Automatic seat belts and airbags are beautiful things. Also, the longer they have to drive themselves before they can drive friends, the better. When the time comes, friends bring with them a multitude of distractions: conversation, music, tech, flirting, and peer pressure.  Texting and distracted driving are the problems of the day, waiting for a solution. Talk to your children about the dangers; make sure they understand that texting and driving is never allowed, and that they must keep their attention on the road. Be a good example by doing this yourself.

If your child wants their own car, make sure they contribute to its cost in both dollars and sweat. If a child puts their hard earned money and muscle into a car he or she will take better care of it, and consequently of the person inside.

Last, the other motorized vehicles: Sea-Doo’s, ATVs and dirt bikes. They are the perfect storm: they go fast, have no outside framework, roll over easily, and the only thing that keeps them from crashing are your children’s foresight, common sense, and trained reflexes. The United States averaged 23,800 dirt bike crashes requiring emergency room visits every year between 2001 and 2004; these numbers go up as dirt bikes become more popular. Don’t. Really, just don’t. You do like the kid, right?